Looking for the insight on the only military confrontation between Mexico and America? Read on to get the information, facts and figures on the major battles of the Mexican American War.
There has been only one major military dispute between America and Mexico which was triggered by the annexation of Texas by the US and a border dispute that followed. Northeastern and central Mexico was the battle ground for the Mexican American war and it was here that America came out as the victor. As a result of Mexico’s defeat they had to cede the Northern and Western provinces to the US and till this day they remain under US rule.
The time line of the Mexican American war is from 1846 to 1848. Texas had won its independence from Mexico in 1836 but the Mexicans refused to acknowledge the truth. Military action was averted for quite some time but it finally broke out as disputes arose on the southern border of Texas. Both the parties met each other in the area and the US officially declared war on May 13 under the leadership of James K. Polk.
Amongst the interesting events that took place during this whole war were Taylor’s campaigns in Northeastern Mexico. An army of 2,400 men under the leader ship of General Zachary Taylor were headed towards Fort Texas when they were intercepted by an army of 3,400 Mexicans under the leadership of Mariano Arista. Successful in defeating the Mexicans, Taylor’s men forced them to retreat from the field. Fighting resumed the next day but the Mexicans were driven out across the Rio Grande. Taylor’s men finally captured the fort after heavy fighting. In the end came the most stunning victory by Taylor’s men who numbered only 4,000 and managed to defeat an army of 20,000 Mexicans in the battle of Buena.
Concurrently more war battles were being fought in the West. An army of 1700 men was sent out to capture Santa Fe and California under the command of General Stephen Kearny. In the mean time the US naval forces reached down to the coast of California under the leadership of Commodore Robert Stockton. The naval forces were quick to capture the towns along the coast with help from the American settlers. Towards the end of 1846 the naval forces joined Kearny’s men in the desert and together they forced the Mexicans into their final surrender in the state of California.
Mexico City was the last and final target for the Americans. With an army of 12,000 men under the command of General Winfield Scott the Americans captured the city of Veracruz. From there on they moved inwards capturing the larger city of Cerro Gordo. On their way to Mexico City they fought and defeated the Mexican forces at Conteras, Churubusco and finally Monilo del Rey. The fighting eventually came to an end when the American forces finally captured the main Mexico City gates and the Chapultepec castle in September 1847.
The war was officially over with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2nd 1848. The land that is the current California, Utah, Nevada and parts of Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico were ceded to the US under this treaty. Mexico acknowledged Texas with the new position that it held. The war ended with 1773 fatalities on the American side with around 4152 people injured. The reports for Mexican casualties were never certified but the estimated number of casualties was 2500 during the two years of war.